^p Crop-CASMA - Crop Condition and Soil Moisture Analytics, 2015 - ongoing

Crop-CASMA - Crop Condition and Soil Moisture Analytics, 2015 - ongoing

Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service
Publication_Date: 20211130
Title:
Crop-CASMA - Crop Condition and Soil Moisture Analytics, 2015 - ongoing
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: digital document
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, DC
Publisher: USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service
Online_Linkage: https://nassgeo.csiss.gmu.edu/CropCASMA/
Description:
Abstract:
CROP-CASMA (Crop Condition and Soil Moisture Analytics) is a web-based geospatial application. This application is designed for users to utilize the remotely sensed geospatial soil moisture and vegetation index data derived from NASA SMAP and MODIS missions to assess conterminous U.S. crop vegetation and soil moisture conditions. This data is published in daily, three-day, and weekly increments (2015 - ongiong). This application is funded by NASA and USDA-NASS. It is designed and developed by USDA-NASS and the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems at George Mason University.
Purpose:
The tool, Crop Condition and Soil Moisture Analytics (Crop-CASMA), provides access to high-resolution data from NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument in a user-friendly format. Soil moisture data are critical for professionals in the agriculture and natural resource sectors who use soil moisture in tandem with other data to plan crop planting, forecast yields, monitor droughts or floods, and improve weather forecasts.
Supplemental_Information:
Additional information and data can be found at <https://nassgeo.csiss.gmu.edu/CropCASMA/>.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20150331
Ending_Date: 20211130
Currentness_Reference: Ground Condition
Status:
Progress: Planned
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Daily, three day, and weekly
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -127.8873
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -74.1585
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 47.9580
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 23.1496
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: farming, 001
Theme_Keyword: environment, 007
Theme_Keyword: imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, 010
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
Theme_Keyword: Earth Science > Biosphere > Vegetation > Vegetation Index
Theme_Keyword:
Earth Science > Biosphere > Terrestrial Ecosystems > Agricultural Lands
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
Theme_Keyword: MODIS > Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
Theme_Keyword: NASA/JPL/SMAP > Soil Moisture Active and Passive Project, NASA
Theme_Keyword: SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: soil moisture active passive
Theme_Keyword: smap
Theme_Keyword: soil moisture
Theme_Keyword: soil water content
Theme_Keyword: vegetative condition
Theme_Keyword: vegetation indices
Theme_Keyword: vegetation index
Theme_Keyword: NDVI
Theme_Keyword: VCI
Theme_Keyword: MVCI
Theme_Keyword: crop mask
Theme_Keyword: cropland
Theme_Keyword: agriculture
Theme_Keyword: MODIS
Theme_Keyword: VegScape
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: Alabama
Place_Keyword: Arizona
Place_Keyword: Arkansas
Place_Keyword: California
Place_Keyword: Colorado
Place_Keyword: Connecticut
Place_Keyword: Delaware
Place_Keyword: Florida
Place_Keyword: Georgia
Place_Keyword: Idaho
Place_Keyword: Illinois
Place_Keyword: Indiana
Place_Keyword: Iowa
Place_Keyword: Kansas
Place_Keyword: Kentucky
Place_Keyword: Louisiana
Place_Keyword: Maine
Place_Keyword: Maryland
Place_Keyword: Massachusetts
Place_Keyword: Michigan
Place_Keyword: Minnesota
Place_Keyword: Mississippi
Place_Keyword: Missouri
Place_Keyword: Montana
Place_Keyword: Nebraska
Place_Keyword: Nevada
Place_Keyword: New Hampshire
Place_Keyword: New Jersey
Place_Keyword: New Mexico
Place_Keyword: New York
Place_Keyword: North Carolina
Place_Keyword: North Dakota
Place_Keyword: Ohio
Place_Keyword: Oklahoma
Place_Keyword: Oregon
Place_Keyword: Pennsylvania
Place_Keyword: Rhode Island
Place_Keyword: South Carolina
Place_Keyword: South Dakota
Place_Keyword: Tennessee
Place_Keyword: Texas
Place_Keyword: Utah
Place_Keyword: Vermont
Place_Keyword: Virginia
Place_Keyword: Washington
Place_Keyword: West Virginia
Place_Keyword: Wisconsin
Place_Keyword: Wyoming
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Temporal_Keyword: 2015-ongoing on a daily, 3-day and weekly basis
Access_Constraints: none
Use_Constraints:
The data offered on the Crop-CASMA website is provided to the public as is and is considered public domain and free to redistribute. The USDA, NASS does not warrant any conclusions drawn from these data.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USDA, NASS, Spatial Analysis Research Section
Contact_Person: USDA, NASS, Spatial Analysis Research Section staff
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 5029 South Building
City: Washington
State_or_Province: District of Columbia
Postal_Code: 20250-2001
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 800-727-9540
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 855-493-0447
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: SM.NASS.RDD.GIB@usda.gov
Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The Crop-CASMA data are offered as 9 kilometer and 1 kilometer raster data. Currently, there are several soil moisture data products and vegetative indices offered as detailed below and at <https://nassgeo.csiss.gmu.edu/Crop-CASMA-User/user/data/>.
 Soil Moisture Data Products
 This application disseminates the following NASA data products and their derivative data products.

 NASA SMAP level 4 data including
 - SMAPSurface 9km (every 3 hour)
 - SMAPRootzone 9km (every 3 hour)

 NASA SMAP level 4 derivative data products:
 - SMAPSurface 9km (daily, weekly)
 - SMAPRootzone 9km (daily, weekly)
 - SMAPSurface 9km -- Anomaly (daily, weekly)
 - SMAPRootzone 9km -- Anomaly (daily, weekly)

 Categorized Soil Moisture Condition Data Converted from NASA SMAP level 4 derivative data products:
 - SMAPSurface 9km -- Categorical (weekly)
 - SMAPRootzone 9km -- Categorical (weekly)

 NASA 1km High Resolution Soil Moisture data products Derived from SMAP, MODIS Land Surface Temperature and Soil Texture Data (NASA 1km SM Data):
 - SM Surface 1km (weekly composite)
 - SM Surface 1km (3day composite)
 - SM Surface 1km (daily)

 Derivative Data Products from NASA 1km SM Data:
 - SM Surface 1km -- Anomaly (weekly)
 - SM Surface 1km - Categorical (weekly)

 Crop Vegetation Index Data Products

 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Products
 - CROP-CASMA can provide daily and weekly NDVI products from 2000.

 Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) Products
 - Represent the weather condition or the vegetation condition. Currently CROP-CASMA can provide weekly VCI products from 2000.

 Mean Vegetation Condition Index (MVCI) Products
 - Represent the deviation of the vegetation to "normal" vegetation or multiple-year mean. Currently CROP-CASMA can provide on-demand weekly MVCI products from 2000.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
The product and attribute descriptions below can be found online at <https://nassgeo.csiss.gmu.edu/Crop-CASMA-User/user/references/>.
 NASS Top and Sub Soil:
 -Top Soil (surface soil) - defined as the top 6 inches (approximately 15.25 centimeters).
 -Sub Soil (rootzone soil) - defined as the top 3 feet (approximately 0.9 meters).

 NASA Remotely Sensed Surface Soil and Rootzone Soil (SMAP Soil Moisture):
 -Surface soil - defined as the top 2 inches (5 centimeters).
 -Rootzone Soil - defined as the top 3.2 feet (approximately 1 meter).


 Measure of NASA Soil Moisture:
 The NASA SMAP 9km level-4 soil moisture and 1km soil moisture measurements are volumetric soil moisture (i.e. volumetric water content in the soil). It is simply the ratio of water volume to soil volume.

 USDA/NASS Top and Sub-Soil Moisture Conditions (Categorical Assessment):
 -Very Short - Soil moisture supplies are significantly less than what is required for normal plant development. Growth has been stopped or nearly so and plants are showing visible signs of moisture stress. Under these conditions, plants will quickly suffer irreparable damage.
 -Short - Soil dry. Seed germination and/or normal crop growth and development would be curtailed.
 -Adequate - Soil moist. Seed germination and/or crop growth and development would be normal or unhindered.
 -Surplus - Soil wet. Fields may be muddy and will generally be unable to absorb additional moisture. Young developing crops may be yellowing from excess moisture.


 Soil Moisture Anomaly
 The soil moisture anomaly (SMA) in CropCASMA is a measure of deviation of the current soil moisture value from the "normal" soil moisture level, which is represented by a historical average soil moisture value (from 2015 to current). The SMA of a given location is defined by the following formula:
 SMA= SM-SMm/SMm×100%
 where SM and $\text{SM}_{m}$ denote current soil moisture value and the historical average soil moisture value of a given location.


 NDVI - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is defined as follows:
 NDVI= NIR-Red/NIR+Red
 where Red and NIR stand for the spectral reflectance measurements acquired in the red (visible) and near-infrared bands, respectively. The NDVI value falls in [-1, 1] range.
 In Crop-CASMA, the Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 250m data of MODIS are selected for the NDVI calculation. The L2G product has two bands -- Band~1~ (620-670 nm) and Band~2~ (841-876 nm), which represent red and near-infrared band respectively. To reduce file size, the real NDVI values are converted from in the range of [-1, 1] to integers in [0, 250]. Therefore, the daily NDVI in Crop-CASMA is rescaled as follows:
 NDVI= Band2-Band1/Band2+Band1×125+125
 The rescaled data are in the range of [0, 250].

 VCI - Vegetation Condition Index
 The Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) compares the current NDVI to the minimum historical NDVI value observed in the same period in previous years. It indicates where the currently observed NDVI value is situated between the historical extreme values (minimum and maximum) relatively. The VCI is defined by the following equation:
 VCI= NDVI-NDVImin/NDVImax+NDVImin*250
 where NDVI is the value at a given pixel, NDVI~min~ is the minimum value across multiple years at that pixel, NDVI~max~ is the maximum across the same period. It should be indicated that the data given in the equation is also rescaled to [0, 250] in order to reduce the file size.

 MVCI - Mean Vegetation Condition Index
 Mean Vegetation Condition Index (MVCI) represents the deviation of the vegetation condition from the "normal" vegetation condition, which is represented by NDVI historical average value. Mean Vegetation Condition Index is theoretically defined by the following equation:
 mm= NDVI-NDVIm/NDVIm×100
 where NDVI represents the current vegetation condition and NDVI~m~ represents the mean value of historical NDVI values. Similarly, the MVCI values in Crop-CASMA are rescaled to be represented in 8-bit integer in the range of [0,250]. The following formula is used for rescaling MVCI values in Crop-CASMA.
 MVCI= 0,if (mm=-125)
 mm+125,if (-125<mm<125)
 250,if (mm=125)
 For better visualization and to save space, the value range are truncated to fit in [0, 250]. Correspondingly, the map values for visualization are in [-100%, 100%] although the actual range can go beyond these limits.

 MVC -- Maximum-Value Composite Procedure
 A maximum-value composite procedure (or MVC) is a procedure used in compositing a series of multi-temporal geo-referenced NDVI images into a single NDVI image. This procedure compares all NDVI values on a pixel-by-pixel basis and retains only the highest value for each pixel location. This procedure will ran over all pixels and the output result is a MVC NDVI image.
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USDA, NASS Customer Service
Contact_Person: USDA, NASS Customer Service Staff
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 5038-S
City: Washington
State_or_Province: District of Columbia
Postal_Code: 20250-9410
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 800-727-9540
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 855-493-0447
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: SM.NASS.RDD.GIB@usda.gov
Contact_Instructions:
The Crop-CASMA web service is available at <https://nassgeo.csiss.gmu.edu/CropCASMA/>. Additional details can also be found at <https://www.nass.usda.gov/Research_and_Science/Cropland/SARS1a.php>.
Resource_Description: CROP-CASMA (Crop Condition and Soil Moisture Analytics)
Distribution_Liability:
Disclaimer: Users of the Crop-CASMA, VegScape and CropScape are solely responsible for interpretations made from these products. The data are provided 'as is' and the USDA, NASS does not warrant results you may obtain using the data. Contact our staff at (SM.NASS.RDD.GIB@usda.gov) if technical questions arise.
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20211130
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: USDA, NASS, Spatial Analysis Research Section
Contact_Person: USDA, NASS, Spatial Analysis Research Section Staff
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 5029 South Building
City: Washington
State_or_Province: District of Columbia
Postal_Code: 20250-2001
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 800-727-9540
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 855-493-0447
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: SM.NASS.RDD.GIB@usda.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Access_Constraints: No restrictions on the distribution or use of the metadata file
Metadata_Use_Constraints: No restrictions on the distribution or use of the metadata file

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