Milk Production and All Milk Prices

Milk Production Survey
Milk Production Survey

Samples are selected from each state's list of dairy producers. The sample is randomly drawn from the list of milk producers. When feasible, NASS utilizes state or federal administrative data, rather than conducting a monthly or quarterly Milk Production survey, to estimate milk production and milk cow inventory.

All Milk Prices Survey

Each month, the NASS Regional Field Offices estimate the All Milk price for each of the 24 major milk-producing states. The All Milk price represents the gross price farmers in the state received in the given month per hundredweight (cwt) of milk sold at average fat test. The gross price is before deductions for items such as hauling and stop charges, advertising and promotion costs, and coop dues. It does not include hauling subsidies, but does include premiums and discounts for quality, quantity, or other reasons. The price per hundredweight equals total gross receipts divided by pounds of milk sold and multiplied by 100.

In establishing state All Milk prices each month, RFOs use administrative data from various sources as well as survey data. NASS calculates the U.S. All Milk price by weighting the estimated All Milk price in each of the 24 states by production in the state during the same month in the previous year.

Respond Online

Click here to complete your survey online. Remember, you will need your unique survey code to sign in.

Program Content

Monthly and quarterly Milk Production surveys collect information on the (1) number of cows milked yesterday, (2) number of all milk cows in the herd yesterday, and (3) total milk produced yesterday. Information on milk cow replacement prices are collected each quarter. In April and October, producers provide information on the amount of milk used on the farm for food or drink and the amount fed to calves.


Statistics on milk production are used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to carry out the National Dairy Support Program. In addition, the statistics are used extensively by the dairy industry in planning, pricing, and projecting supplies of milk and milk products. Dairy producers also utilize the reports to determine production and marketing strategies.


The quarterly Milk Production survey is conducted in January, April, July, and October.


The Milk Production survey utilizes primarily mail, phone, and web-based reporting to collect survey data. Questionnaires are mailed to a sample of dairy producers about the 24th of the month. States conduct a nonresponse telephone follow-up to ensure sufficient data are obtained.

Phone enumerators utilize Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI), a sophisticated software which allows them to enter reported data directly into an electronic format. The software performs simple consistency checks as well as checks against previously reported data, which reduces the need for follow-up contacts with the respondent.

Simple models are used to estimate for the states not in the monthly program. Milk cow estimates from the Cattle Inventory surveys provide an independent check against the milk production survey data.

Related Programs

Milk Production, Disposition and Income
Monthly Dairy Products
Cattle Inventory
Farms, Land in Farms, and Livestock Operations

Last Modified: 04/17/2024