June Area

June Area Survey

The June Area survey is one of the largest annual NASS survey projects, and provides significant utility for the entire NASS survey program. The data collected are used to supply direct estimates of acreage and measures of sampling coverage.

This survey utilizes an area sampling frame. The area frame consists of all land, stratified by land use, in all states except Alaska. The primary sampling units (PSU), based on land area, provide complete coverage of all agriculture activity occurring on that land and, therefore, all operators in the state.

A sample of over 9,000 segments, smaller units of a PSU measuring roughly one square mile, is selected from each land use stratum for data collection. All farm operators operating within the boundaries of the selected segments are interviewed. In a given year, approximately 70,000 agricultural and non-agricultural land use tracts are identified within the sampled segments. From that identification, over 30,000 detailed interviews are conducted with farmers operating farms inside the segment boundaries or who have the potential to qualify as a farm.

Every five years, over 3,000 extra segments are sampled to supplement census coverage measures.

View Online

Use your unique survey code to sign in and view an aerial photo and county map for your upcoming interview.

Program Content

The June Area Survey is designed to account for every acre of land, all agricultural activities, and land uses within segment boundaries. Crop acreage, grain stocks, cattle inventory, hog inventory, sheep and goat presence, land values, farm numbers, technology use, and value of sales data are collected. The diverse range of items is needed for direct estimation requirements and sample design needs for projects later in the survey year.


Modern agriculture increasingly calls upon NASS to supply reliable, timely, and detailed information. The wide range of crop, livestock, and economic statistics contained in these reports helps develop a stable economic atmosphere and reduces risk for production, marketing, and distribution operations. Economic data and statistics on rural America are becoming increasingly important. The June Area survey plays a critical role in these program areas.


The June Area survey is conducted annually.


Historically, data collection for the June Area survey was completed entirely by personal interview during the first two weeks of June. Beginning in 2021, data collection will be completed by phone. Operators in selected segments will be identified, using alternate data sources, and an informational packet, including an aerial photograph and sample questionnaire, will be mailed to each respondent. This informational packet will help identify tracts of land operated within the segment boundary. Acreage data refer to the current crop year, while livestock and stocks data refer to June 1.

The June Area frame survey provides direct estimates for several projects and generates a unique population of respondents. Those operations which did not have the opportunity to be sampled from the list frame comprise the non-overlap (NOL) domain. The NOL domain, identified from this survey, is used as a sampling source to calculate an incompleteness measure for multiple frame estimates for several major survey projects. This domain also provides NASS the ability to be responsive to the data needs of state and federal cooperators by ensuring complete sampling coverage for reimbursable survey projects. The detailed crop acreage data are also used as a sampling source for several of the Objective Yield Surveys.

Special Features

The June Area survey provides a ”ground truth” for several remote sensing projects and Geographic Information System research and products and supports other research projects.

Related Programs

Farms and Land in Farms

Last Modified: 04/17/2024