Grain Stocks

Grain Stocks

The Grain Stocks report is a quarterly Principal Federal Economic Indicator publication that contains estimates of stocks for wheat, corn, sorghum, oats, barley, soybeans, flaxseed, canola, rapeseed, rye, sunflower, safflower, mustard seed, nationally, by state and by position (on-farm or off-farm storage). The report includes number and capacity of off-farm storage facilities and capacity of on-farm storage facilities.

The Grain Stocks publication includes information collected from two separate surveys: The Grain Stocks Report and the Agricultural Survey. The Grain Stocks Report is conducted quarterly with reference dates of March 1, June 1, September 1, and December 1. The target population is all commercial grain storage operations, including grain and oilseed processing plants, terminals, and any other facilities that store grains, oilseeds, and pulse crops (excluding peanuts and rice) that would not be classified as a farm.

The Agricultural Survey is conducted at the same time of the Grain Stocks Report and collects information on on-farm grain stocks. The Agricultural Survey also collects acreage, yield, and production data for various crops each quarter.

Separate rice stocks surveys are conducted in Arkansas, California (only in October), Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Texas. Peanut stocks are estimated at the U.S. level only.

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Grain Stocks Related Videos

Watch report briefings and other related video content for Grain Stocks and the Agricultural Survey.

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Quarterly Grain Stocks Data Feature
Grain Stocks Data Visualizations

Corn Progress Map

Corn Progress and Condition Gridded Layers are geospatial datasets which are fully synthetic representations of county level data. Crop condition is represented by an index ranging from 1 to 5, where 1 corresponds to “Very Poor,” 5 corresponds to “Excellent,” and condition quality ranges continuously between these limits. Crop progress is represented by an index ranging from 0 to 1, where 0 represents “0% planted.” 1 represents “100% harvested,” and progress stages range continuously between these limits. This app is for visualizing corn progress and condition for 2022. Use the date slider or calendar tool on the left to choose a date of interest and to see condition and progress data from that time period. The map is made of two panels split by a swiper tool, allowing the user to make side-by-side comparisons of the progress data and the condition data for the same area. Clicking on the map will generate a summary of progress and condition for the point selected as well as the county.

Frequently Asked Questions
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    Who is sampled in the Grain Stocks Report?

    All commercial facilities off the farm including elevators, warehouses, ethanol plants, terminals, merchant mills, other storage facilities, and oilseed crushers which store whole (unprocessed) grains, oilseeds, and pulse crops. This includes grains, oilseeds, and pulse crops in temporary or permanent storage facilities.

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    When does NASS conduct the Grain Stocks Report?

    Grain Stocks data are collected and published four times per year. This survey collects information on stocks stored off-farm as of December 1, March 1, June 1, and September 1 each year. The Grain Stocks report is released at the end of the month containing the reference date, except for the December 1 report that is released in January in conjunction with the Crop Production Annual Summary.

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    Why did I receive the Grain Stocks questionnaire?

    You have been identified as the point of contact for a commercial grain storage facility. All known commercial grain storage facilities are sent a questionnaire each quarter to determine the amount of grain stored off the farm.

    If you do not receive NASS surveys and censuses, sign up to be counted at

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    Why does NASS conduct the Grain Stocks Report?

    The data collected on this report are used by public and private data users to determine the amount of a given commodity exists off the farm during these reference dates.

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    How does NASS define storage capacity for the Grain Stocks Report?

    Storage capacity of all structures normally used by elevators, warehouses, terminals, merchant mills, other storage, and oilseed crushers to store whole grains, oilseeds, or pulse crops. The capacity used to store grain temporarily on the ground or in structures (such as machinery storage buildings, warehouses, livestock buildings, and cement slabs) not normally used for storage should not be included in rated storage capacity. Off-farm capacity is usually the rated or licensed capacity of the facility. However, depending on the state, permits can be obtained by elevators for “temporary” and “emergency” storage capacity. As a general rule, most “emergency” and “temporary” storage capacity should be excluded from reported total rated capacity.

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    Is the information an individual provides kept confidential?

    The information you provide will be used for statistical purposes only. In accordance with the Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of 2018, Title III of Pub. L. No. 115-435, codified in 44 U.S.C. Ch. 35 and other applicable Federal laws, your responses will be kept confidential and will not be disclosed in identifiable form to anyone other than employees or agents. By law, every National Agricultural Statistics Service employee as well as every agent has taken an oath and is subject to a jail term of up to 5 years, a fine of up to $250,000, or both if he or she willfully discloses ANY identifiable information about you.

    For more information, please visit the NASS Confidentiality Pledge.

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    How does NASS measure grain in transit for the Grain Stocks Report?

    Grain in transit is not counted on the Grain Stocks survey. This grain typically makes up a very small percentage of the national supply at any point in time.

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    Explain the differences between capacity and licensing capacity for the Grain Stocks Report?

    Licensed capacity is a term used by states with licensing requirements for commercial grain handlers. NASS considers any structure normally used by an elevator, regardless of state license, to be valid storage capacity.

Grain Stocks Methodology and Quality Measures

The Grain Stocks survey is one of two surveys conducted to produce estimates for the quarterly Grain Stocks report. The Grain Stocks Methodology and Quality Measures report describes the Grain Stocks survey methodology from sampling to estimation. This annual report also contains sample sizes and survey response rates for the previous four quarters as well as additional quality measures for select published items.

Feb. 9, 2024
Feb. 3, 2023
Jan. 28, 2022
April 8, 2021

Last Modified: 04/17/2024